Facts and figures
Figures for 2014 indicate there were around 97,000 women originating from FGM ‘risk countries’ in the Netherlands, of whom 38,000 were aged less than 18 (Central Bureau of Statistics, the Netherlands). Risk countries are those in which FGM is known to be practised, on the basis of available data.
The Dutch Board of Health (RVZ, 2005) study of migrant girls from FGM risk countries established that at least 50 were undergoing FGM in the Netherlands each year.
These figures are supported by a 2013 study by Pharos and the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, which estimated that 29,000 women in the Netherlands have undergone FGM with a further 40 to 50 girls cut annually. According to the study, communities from Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea and the Kurdish autonomous region in Iraq account for an estimated 80 per cent of FGM-affected women in the Netherlands, most of whom are between 20 and 49 years of age (Female Genital Mutilation in the Netherlands: Prevalence, incidence and determinants, Pharos, 2013).
The Pharos study assessed the risk of FGM within a given community based on prevalence rates in countries of origin. However, these figures are averages and should be interpreted with caution: the practice of FGM can vary widely between regions of a given country, and migration itself may result in parents deciding not to subject their daughters to FGM.
A 2008 retrospective study on the prevalence of FGM in midwifery practices, carried out the Independent Scientific Research and Advice Bureau TNO – Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek & Advies voor Bedrijven & Overheid (Korfker, 2012) showed that 4 out of 10 pregnant women from risk countries giving birth in the Netherlands had undergone FGM.
Main communities affected
The following table provides details of the country of origin and estimated number of women and girls affected by FGM in the Netherlands.
|Country of origin||Total number of women (a)||Of which, girls aged 0-18 (a)||Prevalence in country of origin (b)|
|Central African Republic||34||10||24%|
|Congo (Democratic Republic)||4,123||1,620||–|
|Sudan, North (c)||2,510||1,112||88%|