The question of whether FGM can form the basis of an asylum claim is considered in part 3 of “Too Much Pain: The Voices of Refugee Women”—a series of videos on FGM and asylum produced by the UN Refugee Agency

Watch Part 3 of Too Much Pain: The Voices of Refugee Women and answer the following questions.

1. For over 10 years, FGM has been established as a form of persecution and grounds upon which affected women and girls can seek asylum.
2. No woman or man has yet been granted asylum based on the fear that the woman or their daughter/s will be mutilated.
3. A well-founded fear of persecution related to FGM is based on three grounds referred to in the 1951 Geneva Convention. These are:
4. Which of the following are not required of EU member states, under the EU Qualifications Directive?
5. Even if girls cannot or do not express fear of FGM, fear of FGM may still be deemed well founded and a gender- and child-specific form of persecution.