A. FGM established as a specific criminal offence
In 2013 FGM was specifically identified as a criminal offence in the German Penal Code, under Article 226a. FGM is now recognised as grievous bodily harm, punishable by up to 15 years in prison.
B. FGM included in the medical diagnosis code
Also in 2013, the four forms of FGM identified by the World Health Organisation were assigned reference numbers in Germany’s medical diagnosis code (N90.8 and Z 91.70 to Z 91.74 in the ICD-10-DE), enabling doctors to indicate to health insurers the effect of FGM on patient treatment and facilitating the recovery of costs of reconstructive surgery, should the patient’s insurance cover it. However, the obligatory medical screening of children (U-Untersuchungen, under Article 26 of the German Social Code) does not, as a rule, include the female genitals.
C. Empowerment of diaspora communities in Germany
The EU-financed and TDF co-ordinated CHANGE Project (2013-15, followed by CHANGE Plus, 2016-18) aims to empower African communities to initiate the fight against FGM, training community ‘multipliers’ in Berlin, Hamburg and other European cities to trigger sensitisation activities and behavioural change in fellow community members (see www.change-agent.eu).
The Assobul (Messengers) platform co-ordinated by Fatou ‘Sister Fa’ Mandiang Diatta is a mixed-nationality association of students, artists and friends providing ideas, solutions and work experience in different Berlin communities. Activities and discussions include FGM, early marriage, empowerment of women, children’s rights and education (see http://www.sisterfa.com/news/new-project-from-sister-fa-in-berlin-germany/).
D. Training sessions/courses for professional staff
Frauengesundheit in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (FIDE AG e.V.—Women’s Health in Development Co-operation) offers practical training for medical personnel, including sessions led by Dr Zerm, an experienced doctor in the field of FGM.
TDF, FPZ and LebKom e.V. also offer training for professional staff, as well as developing teaching material for schools. LebKom e.V. offers teaching modules designed by anti-FGM professionals, and has developed special guided tours on the topic for schools.
CENTER for PROFS, Fulda, offers value-centred training in gender equality with a focus on ending FGM.
E. Restorative medical procedures
A small number of surgeons in Germany are specialised in clitoral reconstruction, including Dr Dan mon O’Dey, who has developed a special technique (aOAP flap surgery). According to Stop Mutilation e.V., all medical reconstruction carried out by him have been covered by the German health insurance, with no additional charge. Dr Dan mon O´Dey works at the Luisenhospital in Aachen (telephone +49 0241/4142446).
The Desert Flower Center at the Waldfriede Hospital in Berlin. The hospital offers plastic reconstruction surgery. Phone: (030) 818108582. E-mail: email@example.com.