Recent work has highlighted six key challenges in the effort to combat FGM in Spain (Guía para profesionales. La MGF en España. Prevención e Intervención, 2013):

–  Generate official registers of cases of FGM, improving the detection of cases and protection of data.

– Formulate integrated policies and multidisciplinary and intersectoral action plans, with the collaboration of relevant institutions, NGOs and individuals.

– Develop more interdisciplinary and inter-institutional protocols.

– Train professionals on the consequences of FGM and how to approach intervention.

– Improve the access of immigrant women to education. A survey by UNICEF in Egypt found that the incidence of harmful practices such as FGM decreases as rates of female literacy rise (Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Egypt, 2010).

– Implement co-development programmes for the prevention of FGM.

Five promising practices with regard to FGM in Spain have been identified.

– Badalona City Hall project combatting FGM, Action-Investigation, involving the collaboration of local networks.

– Interdisciplinary protocols developed by Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and Navarra.

– Doctors of the World awareness-raising projects, research and programmes for developing sub-Saharan women as trainers.

– Data-mapping project by Interdisciplinary Group for Prevention and Study of Harmful Traditional Practices (GIPE-PTP) at Universidad Autónoma of Barcelona.

– UNAF (National Union of Family Associations) projects on prevention and intervention, and work with families to end FGM.

A number of NGO awareness-raising campaigns are also of note, including:

– “Thinking in tomorrow” (“Pensando en el mañana”). Doctors of the World, Navarra.

– “Bref”. Doctors of the World, Catalonia