1. According to the EU Qualification Directive, FGM is not a one-off experience but a continuing form of harm, meaning that a woman or a girl may experience or be at risk of FGM more than once in her lifetime.
2. In countries where laws have been enacted prohibiting FGM, women and girls have no fear of persecution because the procedure is legally designated a crime.
3. In the case of gender-based claims where discriminatory abuses may be perpetrated by state and non-state actors, refugee status should be granted not only on the grounds of an act of persecution but also on the grounds of an absence or failure to provide protection.
4. EU Directives do not require gender-sensitive reception conditions that take account of gender- and age-specific concerns and the situation of vulnerable persons within accommodation centres and their premises.
5. During the reception period, women asylum-seekers should be provided with: